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INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS (MNG ). Mr. Krushna Prasad Industrial Relation: Concept, Scope. 2 . Dynamics of Industrial Relations- Mamoria, Gankar. Dynamics of Industrial Relations. Mamoria, Satish & Mamoria, C.B.. add. List Price: US$ Our Price: US$ You Save 20% + FREE DELIVERY. Dynamics of industrial relations by mamoria pdf Government agencies are increasingly concerned with attracting industrial investment by.
It has been suggested that increased DHC of anchoveta could help solve some of the nutritional problems in Peru and the larger region .
Peruvian consumption of anchoveta, despite its recent increase, is still relatively small 3. The scarcity of anchoveta for DHC is due to a combination of factors, including regulatory limitations industrial vessels cannot supply the DHC industry , consumer preferences and lack of a cold chain for fish in Peru.
Some believe a key factor is the shelf price of anchoveta DHC products. Moreover, one of the factors that direct or divert for SMS captures most anchoveta landings to reduction is the small difference, if any, in prices paid to fishermen per t of fish landed .
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Fishmeal plants paid more than DHC plants until recently. These topics are further analysed in .
More detailed discussion of Peruvian anchoveta processing for DHC is presented in . Key anchoveta-based aquaculture systems in Peru In Peru, aquaculture has been and is still dominated by scallops Argopecten purpuratus and shrimp mainly Litopenaeus vannamei for marine species and by trout mainly Oncorhynchus mykiss , tilapia Oreochromis spp.
Most trout culturing operations are artisanal yet semi-intensive, especially those in the Puno Department Lake Titicaca and nearby water bodies , where most national production takes place. Trout farming in Puno department water bodies consist of artisanal wood- or metal-nylon floating cages — kg carrying capacity and larger metal-nylon floating cages up to 6 kg carrying capacity.
Trout is destined mainly for export, despite increasing consumption in the producing areas and larger cities of Peru, particularly Lima. Black pacu are cultured mainly in large, semi-intensive artificial pond systems, while tilapia is produced using a variety of methods and operational scales, mostly intensive.
Black pacu is almost exclusively cultured in the siteia Loreto and San Martin Departments and tilapia in the Piura region.
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Black pacu is mostly consumed locally, mainly because of the physical isolation of the siteian communities that produce it. Tilapia was historically destined for national markets, but over the last decade increasing proportions of production have been exported. As in other fish farming systems, a key aspect of Peruvian aquaculture is feed supply. In Peru, both artisanal and commercial feeds are used, but the latter prevail, especially for trout.
National production of aquaculture products in Peru was estimated at 89 t in , whereas national consumption was estimated at 0. A more detailed discussion of Peruvian freshwater aquaculture is presented in . Distribution channels Distribution channels for fisheries for DHC consist of 1 landing in several fishing ports and piers, both private and public; 2 transportation of fish in isothermal trucks, often organised by wholesalers; 3 processing in DHC plants; and 4 distribution to retailers for national consumption and export to foreign markets .
The lack of a cold chain for fish in Peru is a major factor limiting further development of domestic distribution channels. Peruvian aquaculture products are distributed within Peru by retailers e.
The Effects of Training and Development on Employee Performance in the Public Sector of Ghana
In coastal areas, wholesaler markets supply retailers, supermarkets, restaurants and final consumers, although this does not apply to the scarce supply of fresh anchoveta.
Regarding canned fish, both processing plants and importers supply wholesalers, who subsequently supply supermarkets and retailers. Five percent of canned fish consumed in Peru is either imported as final product or as frozen fish to be processed in Peru, mainly tuna from Ecuador. Frozen food products are both produced in Peru and imported.
Producers and importers supply wholesalers, who subsequently supply restaurants and supermarkets across the country transported mainly in refrigerated trucks. Producers and importers directly supply markets across the country. This estimate is based on 1 hydro-acoustic data collected since from 2—3 annual surveys of the entire Peruvian coastline and 2 modelling of anchoveta population dynamics as a function of environmental conditions and recruitment levels using Virtual Population Analysis based upon a bio-economic age-structured model .
Spawning biomass is calculated using the Egg-Production Method a meta-review is available in . Fisheries legislation has been introduced since the early s, and currently fisheries are mostly managed in an adaptive-reactive manner, with mixed effects.
For instance, the decrease in catches to 3. Because of that management decision, catches exceeded those of . Other effects of legislation are still unfolding in the Peruvian anchoveta fishery and reduction industries. A list of key historical legislation governing fisheries in Peru is available in Table B1 in File S1.
Oribabor submitted that training and development aim at developing competences such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organization growth, also Isyaku postulated that the process of training and development is a continuous one.
Griffin has drawn the attention of the entire sundry to the inestimable value of training and development. It is an avenue to acquire more and new knowledge and develop further the skills and techniques to function effectively. Scholars, experts, social scientist and public sector administrators now recognize the fact that training is obviously indispensable not only in the development of the individuals but also facilitate the productive capacity of the workers. Training is not coaxing or persuading people to do what is wanted but rather a process of creating organizational conditions that will cause personnel to strive for better performance.
Among other schools that highlighted the usefulness of training are Akintayo , Oguntimehin and Graig They identified the functions of training as follow: increase productivity, improves the quality of work; improves skills, knowledge, understanding and attitude; enhance the use of tools and machine; reduces waste, accidents, turnover, lateness, absenteeism and other overhead costs, eliminates obsolesce in skills, technologies, methods, products, capital management etc.
It brings incumbents to that level of performance which needs the performance for the job; enhance the implementation of new policies and regulations; prepares people for achievement, improves man-power development and ensures the survival and growth of the enterprise. Pitfield is of the opinion that the objectives of training are to: provide the skills, knowledge and aptitudes necessary to undertake required job efficiently develop the workers so that if he has the potentials, he may progress, increase efficiency by reducing spoilt work, misuse of machines and lessening physical risks.
Chris Obisi submitted that training and development aim at developing competences such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organization growth. Also Akinpeju postulated that the process of training and development is a continuous one. A Cole, Many organizations in Ghana and indeed the public sector engage in training and development of staff and have departments, units and sectors in charge of training and development.
GPHA is one such organization that has been practicing training and development since its beginning and particularly for the past ten 10 years. However, for some years now it appears training in Ghana Ports Harbours Authority is haphazard, unplanned and unsystematic, and several of its employees such as machine operators, junior and middle level engineers, accounts clerks, computer operators, secretaries, drivers and many other category of workers, have not qualified for any form of training nor is there any systematic process of staff development in place.
A brief interaction with some employees did show that Management of Ghana Ports Harbours Authority see the cost incurred in the acquisition and maintenance of plant and equipment as more relevant than that expense on training and development of its staff.
In the absence of training and development of employees by Management of Ghana Ports Harbors Authority, the employees sponsored themselves in furtherance of their education to obtain professional or higher level certificates. Employees who expressed the desire to pursue university education were not given any form of assistance like study leave with pay.
Their applications for study leave were turned down with those who were persistent being advised to resign. Those who sought for part-time programs were disengaged after their studies as management claimed their programs were not relevant to the job. The few ones who were retained had no promotion to match their added skills and competencies. This it is believed to have led to high labor turnover in the organization.
The study was therefore to assess the role of training on the human resource and how this affects worker performance. To be able to achieve this, the following specific objective has been identified 1.
Finally, it is to aid management of GPHA to introduce modern schemes for training and development, to be able to meet the challenges of change in the future. Accordingly the analysis and conclusions will be based on this time period. The absence or inaccessibility of reliable records and reports on GPHA activities within the past ten years also limited the research investigation.
The unwillingness of Management to divulge strategic information in the name of confidentiality is a limitation to the study. Chapter one introduces the study by giving the background information on the research problem, main and specific objectives.
Chapter two deals with the review of relevant literature on the research problems and concepts with specific reference to how it applies to Ghana Port and Harbor Authority. Chapter three discusses the research methodology adopted for the study and relevant justifications.
It outlines the methodology for carrying out the secondary and primary data collections and how results were analyzed.
Chapter four presents the findings on the practices and impact of training and development in Ghana Ports and Harbors Authority. Chapter five gives the conclusions drawn from the research findings and recommendations to enhance organizational effectiveness through training, and to ensure a stable and committed human resource. This chapter deals with the review of relevant literature on the research problems and concepts with specific reference to how it applies to Ghana Port and Harbor Authority.
A considerable number of individual studies and meta-analytic reviews of training and development have taken a multi-dimensional perspective enveloping the needs of individuals, teams, organizations and the society at large to document evidence of a positive impact on them.
A training and development program - an essential Human Resource Development HRD function of any organization - addresses a discrepancy between the current performance of the employee and what is expected of him. This literature review offers a critique of the relevant conceptual account on the topic. Training-related activities result in improved job performance and other positive changes e.
Barber found that training led to greater innovation and tacit skills. Training may not only affect declarative or procedural knowledge but also may enhance strategic knowledge which is defined as knowing when to apply a specific knowledge or skill Kozlowski et al. Studies made by Morey et al. Several studies have also documented the impact of training on the organizational performance. Results of the research by Aragon-Sanchez et al. Similarly, it is also observed that 4. The adoption of many policies to encourage the design and delivery of training programs at the national level is the recognition of the benefits of training activities for society Herman Aguinis and Kurt Kraiger, Most of the researches on the relationship between training activities and their benefits for society have been conducted by economists; the focal dependent variable is national economic performance.
Becker observed that training efforts produce improvements in the quality of the labor force, which in turn is one of the most important contributors to national economic growth. It is imperative to focus and to adequately and properly demonstrate and communicate that training efforts are making worthwhile contributions.
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Sackett and Mullen, suggested that the purpose of evaluation is to help organizations make decision about future training activities, and provide tools needed to assess the type of evaluation possible in a given situation, to conduct the most informative evaluation possible, given the constraints of the situation, and to communicate to organizational decision makers both the strengths and the limitations of whatever evaluation data is obtained.
The findings of the study by Grider et. They also opine that organizations should establish an information network to facilitate access to necessary data for before and after measurement. Saxena reported that the actual practice of evaluation in many organizations did not often follow the strict recommendations of evaluation literature.
However, Campbell suggested evaluation can provide a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment to the personnel associated with a course or program. The key messages from the literature reviewed include that Training evaluation can take many forms and the components it includes should be selected according to the information needed and how those information are expected to be used.
It should essentially look at the whole training cycle and not just at the course itself, including needs assessment, design, delivery and follow up. According Cole , in his book Personnel and Human Resource Management, training is a learning activity directed towards the acquisition of specific knowledge and skills for the purpose of an occupation or task.
The focus of training is the job or task for example, the need to have efficiency and safety in the operation of particular machines or equipment, or the need for an effective sales force to mention but a few. Training is the planned and systematic modification of behavior through learning events, activities and programs which results in the participants achieving the levels of knowledge, skills, competencies and abilities to carry out their work effectively Gordon Pheesey defines training as the systematic process of altering the behavior and or attitudes of employees in a direction to increase the achievement of organizational goals.This index is built by combining three equally weighted indicators undernourishment, child underweight and child mortality; as defined by FAO  , .
The proposed framework The proposed framework is based on a one-way coupled model of the ecosystem and the supply chains that exploit it. Chapter two deals with the review of relevant literature on the research problems and concepts with specific reference to how it applies to Ghana Port and Harbor Authority. Cultural Anthropology has also published a number of articles on mental health and addiction.
It follows that no organization becomes effective and efficient until the individual have and apply the required skills and knowledge.